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Cardiff Council

Post 16

​After leaving school, many young people go to a further education institution (FEI) or complete training. All learners who need additional learning provision in college will get an individual development plan to help them transition from school to post 16 education and training.

An additional learning provision is education or training that is in addition to, or different from, the provision provided to other learners of the same age.

An individual development plan is a legal document that describes the learner’s ALN and details the outcomes they would like to achieve in the future, and the learning provision they need to support them.

When choosing a college for a learner, we will work with the school and use the ALN code to decide how to meet the learner’s needs.

 A young person is entitled to 2 years of further education and training.

If the learner has already had 2 or more years, they may not have the reasonable need for more. There are a few circumstances where we will consider a request for more than 2 years:

  • If the programme of study is meant to last for more than 2 years from the beginning. 
  • If an extension is needed to a programme of study the young person is already undertaking. 
  • If the young person undertakes a course which did not benefit them in a meaningful way or there is a significant change in their circumstances. 
  • An essential or substantial element of further education or training to meet their desired outcomes could not be delivered as part of previous training or education. 
  • There are other exceptional circumstances to suggest the young person has not received effective access to further education or training.​
From year 9, exploring options for a young person post 16 is called transition planning. A meeting will be held with the young person, their families and professionals they work with to discuss:

  • future goals they may have 
  • what they need to accomplish the goals
  • who will provide the support

A transition key worker will be named on the plan to make sure it runs smoothly and to help if needed. 

When a plan is complete, it will be shared with everyone who supports the young person, including:

  • the school or college
  • family 
  • hospital or health services 
  • social services

The plan will be reviewed every year. 

Before the young person turns 16, their parents or social services will decide if the plan should be shared. Once the young person turns 16, they can decide if they want the plan to be shared or if they want to continue to have a transition plan.

As time progresses, the young person may need support from a transition social worker. If the social worker decides the young person needs support as they enter adulthood, the transition social worker will ask for a multi-agency decision about who will continue to help plan for the young person’s future when they are 18 years old.

If a young person leaves education or feels they no longer need support to plan for their future, they can ask that their plan is ceased (ended). 

Young people aged 16 to 25 are no longer entitled to continuous education or training. 
When planning for the future with a young person, it is essential that their views, feelings, and future ambitions are considered. Their goals and desired outcomes need to be shared with us when we are looking into provision to meet their needs. 

Some examples of desired outcomes are: 

  • completing a vocational qualification
  • developing independent living skills
  • getting involved with the community 
  • preparing for work
  • progressing to other education or training opportunities

There can also be a wider focus, such as: 

  • developing social relationships
  • supporting emotional stability 
  • developing other skills or qualities that will be needed in adulthood
After the young person has shared their desired outcomes, we will find a suitable programme of study. Most mainstream schools and FEIs can provide a suitable programme for a young person with ALN and these will be considered first. We will decide if the young person can study there and if any additional learning provision is needed.
If we are satisfied that a school or FEI could provide the additional learning provision the person needs, they will prepare and maintain the IDP for the young person. 

If it is unlikely the young person’s needs can be met in a mainstream setting, we may consider programmes of study at a specialist institution, such as an Independent Special Post 16 Institution (ISPI). If a young person attends an ISPI, we will maintain the IDP. 
Ideally, all young people with ALN should attend post 16 education and training in their local area so they can maintain ties with family, their local community and services. 

If a young person’s needs are complex and there is no suitable provision available locally, they may attend an independent special post 16 institution (ISPI).

We will only consider an ISPI if it is likely that a young person’s needs can only be met in a specialist institution. 

When we look to secure placement at an ISPI, we must consider: 

  • Does the young person have reasonable needs for education and training?
  • What are the young person’s goals?
  • What provision or programme of study is available at the ISPI which would help the young person meet their desired outcomes? 

When deciding is board and lodging is needed for the young person’s needs to be met, we will consider if the young person’s needs cannot be met in day provision. It would need to be proven that an essential part of their education or training can only be provided in a residential setting. The placement would also have to comply with regulatory standards for residential placements.
Independent travel is an important part of developing a young person’s resilience and independence. 

Travel will be discussed in the young person’s transition review, especially if they will be transitioning to a placement where they will need to use public transport. Some of the support available includes:

Independent Travel Training 

The Independent Travel Training Scheme (ITTS) aims to give pupils with ALN the key skills and confidence to travel independently using public transport. 

Young people are assessed to see if they are ready for training. By the end of year 11, the young person should have had the opportunity to take part in travel training. Find out more about travel training

Concessionary bus passes

Many young people with ALN can get a free bus pass. They can also buy some train tickets at a reduced price with the pass. Find out more about concessionary bus passes

Mobility allowance

If a young person has a Personal Independence Payment (PIP) and has mobility issues, they can get a mobility allowance as part of that payment to help cover the cost of transport. Find out more about mobility allowance.

The Orange Wallet Scheme

The Orange Wallet Scheme is aimed at young people who have difficulty communicating. The wallet uses words and pictures to communicate the young person’s needs to the transport staff across Wales. Staff are trained to recognise the wallet. Find out more about the Orange Wallet Scheme. ​
An advocate can offer more support during the transition process. If a young person would like an advocate, they can ask their school, FEI, or social worker. 

A young person can also get help from a case friend or representative if they need help making decisions.
If something goes wrong, the young person can get help from the Disagreement Resolution Service​


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